Stufen des Spiels
Original: "Parten's stages of play"
Stages of play ist eine Klassifikation des freien Spiels von Kindern im Vorschulalter zwischen zwei und fünf Jahren. Sie geht zurück auf Mildred Parten, die 1932 in einer Untersuchung Kinder während deren freien Spielphasen beobachtete. Freies Spiel ist definiert als sämtliche Aktivitäten, die weder Pflichten noch Erschaffung noch Gewinnen gewidmet sind. Im Zuge dieser Untersuchung beschrieb Parten sechs Kategorien von Spielverhalten.
|Unbeteiligt||Das Kind spielt nicht sondern beobachtet nur. Ein Kind bleibt an einer Stelle oder führt augenscheinlich zufällige Bewegungen aus.|
|Einzel||Das Kind bleibt alleine und ist fokussiert auf seine eigene Aktivität. Ein Kind auf dieser Stufe ist nicht interessiert am Tun anderer Kinder oder sich dessen nicht bewusst. Dieses Spielverhalten zeigen vorwiegend jüngere Kinder im Alter von zwei bis drei Jahren.|
|Zuschauer||"when the child watches others at play but does not engage in it. The child may engage in forms of social interaction, such as conversation about the play, without actually joining in the activity. This type of activity is also more common in younger children."|
|Nebeneinander||"when the child plays separately from others but close to them and mimicking their actions. This type of play is seen as a transitory stage from a socially immature solitary and onlooker type of play, to a more socially mature associative and cooperative type of play."|
|Zusammen||"when the child is interested in the people playing but not in coordinating their activities with those people, or when there is no organized activity at all. There is a substantial amount of interaction involved, but the activities are not in sync."|
|Gemeinschaftlich||"when a child is interested both in the people playing and in the activity they are doing. In cooperative play, the activity is organized, and participants have assigned roles. There is also increased with a group, and a may emerge. This is relatively uncommon in the preschool and Kindergarten years, because it requires the most social maturity and more advanced organization skills. Examples would be dramatic play activities with roles, like playing school, or a game with rules, such as freeze tag."|
"According to Parten, as children became older, improving their communication skills, and as opportunities for peer interaction become more common, the nonsocial (solitary and parallel) types of play become less common, and the social (associative and cooperative) types of play become more common."
"Modern scholars agree that Parten's theory has contributed substantially to our understanding of play, and while alternative classification schemes have been proposed, Parten's stages of play are still widely used. However, there is disagreement on whether there is indeed a sequence of play stages that children go through – for example, whether toddlers are really unable to play cooperatively, and whether solitary play in older children is less common or a sign of immaturity. Alternative explanations suggest that types of play may be influenced by other circumstances (such as how well the children know one another)"